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ConjugationsEdit

Before reading this article, please first read Conjugations so that you know how to identify the conjugation of a verb.

Forming active indicative verbsEdit

Present TenseEdit

The present tense translates "verbs," "is verbing" or "does verb." It is used for actions that are currently taking place.

1st person singular is simply the first principal part of the verb.

Other forms:

  • Obtain the present stem of your verb. This can be done by removing the "-re" from its second principal part and the vowel before it.
  • Add a base vowel:
    • 1st conjugation: a
    • 2nd conjugation: e
    • 3rd conjugation: u before n, i before anything else
    • 3rd IO: iu before n, i before anything else
    • 4th: iu before n, i before anything else
  • Then add the folowing endings:
1st person plural -mus
2nd person singular -s 2nd person plural -tis
3rd person singular -t 3rd person plural -nt

Imperfect TenseEdit

The imperfect tense translates "was verbing" or "used to verb". It is used for repeated, ongoing, or habitual action in the past.

  • Obtain the present stem of your verb. This can be done by removing the "-re" from its second principal part and the vowel before it.
  • Add a base vowel:
    • 1st conjugation: a
    • 2nd conjugation: e
    • 3rd conjugation: e
    • 3rd IO: ie
    • 4th: ie
  • Then add the folowing endings:
1st person singular -bam 1st person plural -bamus
2nd person singular -bas 2nd person plural -batis
3rd person singular -bat 3rd person plural -bant

Future TenseEdit

The future tense translates "will verb". It is used for action that will occur in the future.

1st and 2nd conjugationsEdit

  • Obtain the present stem of your verb. This can be done by removing the "-re" from its second principal part and the vowel before it.
  • Add a base vowel:
    • 1st conjugation: a
    • 2nd conjugation: e
  • Then add the following endings:
1st person singular -bo 1st person plural -bimus
2nd person singular -bis 2nd person plural -bitis
3rd person singular -bit 3rd person plural -bunt

Exceptions:

  • None.

3rd, 3rd IO, and 4th conjugationsEdit

  • Obtain the present stem of your verb. This can be done by removing the "-re" from its second principal part and the vowel before it.
  • Add a base vowel:
    • 3rd conjugation: nothing
    • 3rd IO: i
    • 4th: i
  • Then add the following endings:
1st person singular -am 1st person plural -emus
2nd person singular -es 2nd person plural -etis
3rd person singular -et 3rd person plural -ent

Perfect TenseEdit

The perfect tense indicates one-time or completed action in the past. It translates "verbed", "did verb", or "has verbed".

  • Obtain the perfect stem of your verb. This can be done by removing the "-i" from its third principal part.
  • Add these endings to the stem:
1st person singular -i 1st person plural -imus
2nd person singular -isti 2nd person plural -istis
3rd person singular -it 3rd person plural -erunt


Pluperfect TenseEdit

The pluperfect tense indicates action completed further in the past. It translates "had verbed".

  • Obtain the perfect stem of your verb. This can be done by removing the "-i" from its third principal part.
  • Add these endings to the stem:
1st person singular -eram 1st person plural -eramus
2nd person singular -eras 2nd person plural -eratis
3rd person singular -erat 3rd person plural -erant


Future Perfect TenseEdit

The future perfect tense indicates action that will have been completed later. It translates "will have verbed".

  • Obtain the perfect stem of your verb. This can be done by removing the "-i" from its third principal part.
  • Add these endings to the stem:
1st person singular -ero 1st person plural -erimus
2nd person singular -eris 2nd person plural -eritis
3rd person singular -erit 3rd person plural

-erint


Forming passive indicative verbsEdit

Present TenseEdit

The present passive translates "is being verbed" or "is verbed".

  • The 1st person singular form is just the first principal part plus the letter "r".
  • For the other forms, obtain the present stem of the verb by removing the "-re" from the second principal part, and then add these endings:
1st person plural -mur
2nd person singular -ris 2nd person plural -mini
3rd person singular -tur 3rd person plural

-ntur

Exceptions:

  • In the third conjugation, the "e" in the stem will change to a "u" in the 3rd person plural before the ending is added (e.g. they will be deceived = falluntur as opposed to fallentur) and an "i" before all other forms except for the second-person singular (e.g. it is being led = ducitur; you are being led = duceris)
  • Third -IO works the same way except that there will be an "iu" in the 3rd person plural instead of a "u".
  • The "i" of the fourth conjugation stem also changes to "iu" in this form.

Imperfect TenseEdit

The imperfect passive tranlates "was being verbed" or "was verbed".

  • Obtain the present stem. This can be done by removing the "-re" from the second principal part.
  • Add the following endings:
1st person singular -bar 1st person plural -bamur
2nd person singular -baris 2nd person plural -bamini
3rd person singular -batur 3rd person plural

-bantur

Exceptions:

  • In 3rd IO and 4th conjugations, the last vowel of the stem still changes to "ie" before the endings are added. (e.g. he was being shaken = quatiebat, not quatebat; it was filled = farciebat, not farcibat)

Future TenseEdit

The future passive translates "will be verbed".

1st and 2nd conjugationsEdit

  • Obtain the present stem by removing the "-re" from the second principal part.
  • Add the following endings:
1st person singular -bor 1st person plural -bimur
2nd person singular -beris^ 2nd person plural -bimini
3rd person singular -bitur 3rd person plural

-buntur

^Notice how the "i" in "bis" changed to an "e" in "beris".

3rd, 3rd IO, and 4th conjugationsEdit

  • Obtain the present stem by removing the "-re" from the second principal part.
  • Thus, the future passive endings for 3rd, 3rd IO, and 4th conjugations are:
1st person singular -ar 1st person plural -emur
2nd person singular -eris 2nd person plural -emini
3rd person singular -etur 3rd person plural

-entur

Exceptions:

  • The "e" comes off of the 3rd conjugation stem before the endings are added. (e.g. I will be led = ducar, not ducear).
  • That "e" is replaced by an "i" for 3rd IO verbs (e.g. I will be caught = capiar, not capear)

Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect TensesEdit

FormationEdit

  • Take the fourth principal part of your verb. This is called the perfect passive participle.
  • Decline the participle so that it agrees with your subject in gender and number.
  • Add a form of the verb "sum, esse". Conjugate it so that it agrees with the person and number of your subject.
    • For perfect tense, add a present form of "esse"
    • For pluperfect tense, add an imperfect form of "esse"
    • For future perfect tense, add a future form of "esse".

TranslationEdit

Perfect tense: "has been verbed" (or, more loosely, "was verbed")

Pluperfect tense: "had been verbed"

Future perfect tense: "will have been verbed"

Forming active subjunctive verbsEdit

Note about translationEdit

Subjunctive verbs translate differently depending on their use. See Uses of the subjunctive for more information on translation.


Note about tensesEdit

There is no future or future perfect subjunctive.



Present TenseEdit

  • Obtain your present stem. This can be found by taking off the "-re" from the second principal part.
  • Change the vowel on the end of your stem to:
    • 1st conjugation: e
    • 2nd conjugation: ea
    • 3rd conjugation: a
    • 3rd -IO conjugation: ia
    • 4th conjugation: ia
    • The mnemonic device "WE BEAT A LIAR" should help you remember this.
  • After you have changed the vowel, add the personal endings:
1st person singular -m 1st person plural -mus
2nd person singular -s 2nd person plural -tis
3rd person singular -t 3rd person plural -nt


Imperfect TenseEdit

  • Take the whole second principal part.
  • Add the personal endings:
1st person singular -m 1st person plural -mus
2nd person singular -s 2nd person plural -tis
3rd person singular -t 3rd person plural -nt


Perfect TenseEdit

  • Take the third principal part and remove the "i" to obtain the stem.
  • Add the endings:
1st person singular -erim 1st person plural -erimus
2nd person singular -eris 2nd person plural -eritis
3rd person singular -erit 3rd person plural -erint


Pluperfect TenseEdit

  • Take the third principal part and remove the "i" to obtain the stem.
  • Add the endings:
1st person singular -issem 1st person plural -issemus
2nd person singular -isses 2nd person plural -issetis
3rd person singular -isset 3rd person plural -issent

Forming passive subjunctive verbsEdit

Note about translationEdit

Subjunctive verbs translate differently depending on their use. See Uses of the subjunctive for more information on translation.


Note about tensesEdit

There is no future or future perfect subjunctive.

Present and Imperfect TensesEdit

  • Take the active subjunctive forms and replace the endings -m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, and -nt with:
1st person singular -r 1st person plural -mur
2nd person singular -ris 2nd person plural -mini
3rd person singular -tur 3rd person plural -ntur


Perfect and Pluperfect TensesEdit

  • Take the fourth principal part of your verb. This is called the perfect passive participle.
  • Decline the participle so that it agrees with your subject in gender and number.
  • Add a form of the verb "sum, esse". Conjugate it so that it agrees with the person and number of your subject.
    • For perfect tense, add a present subjunctive form of "esse"
    • For pluperfect tense, add an imperfect subjunctive form of "esse"


Substitution methodEdit

Making an active verb passiveEdit

Replace the ending -o/-m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, and -nt with:

1st person singular -or/-r^ 1st person plural -mur
2nd person singular -ris 2nd person plural -mini
3rd person singular -tur 3rd person plural -ntur

^"o" becomes "or" and "m" becomes "r".

Exceptions:

  • In the second-person singular present form of 3rd and 3rd IO conjugation verbs, "is" will become "eris" rather than "iris". (e.g. if you were to make ducis passive, it would be duceris, not duciris; if you made capis passive, it would become caperis, not capiris).
  • In the second-person singular future form of 1st and 2nd conjugation verbs, "bis" will become "beris" rather than "biris". (e.g. if you were to make amabis passive, it would be amaberis, not amabiris).


Making passive verbs activeEdit

Just do the reverse of what you would do if you were making an active verb passive.


Exceptions:

  • In the second-person singular present form of 3rd and 3rd IO conjugation verbs, "eris" will become "is" rather than "es". (e.g. if you were to make duceris active, it would be ducis, not duces; if you made caperis passive, it would become capis, not capes).
  • In the second-person singular future form of 1st and 2nd conjugation verbs, "beris" will become "bis" rather than "bes". (e.g. if you were to make amaberis active, it would be amabis, not amabes).
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